Author:
Diane Walker, Brian Peck, Emily Wallace
Subject:
Communication, Journalism, Film and Music Production, Composition and Rhetoric
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Level:
High School
Grade:
10, 11, 12
Tags:
• Bias • Collaboration • Digital Citizenship • Discrimination • Injustice • Invisibility • Mistreatment • Marginalization • Prejudice • Veracity
License:
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike
Language:
English
Media Formats:
Downloadable docs

Education Standards

Bias in the Media -- Video Essay

Overview

Students will build sensory awareness enhancing their perception and personal connections to the theme of race, power, and privilege in their community.  Students will take notes, build background knowledge, and begin to determine which types of media messages are reliable sources of information. They will research what form of media campaign most inspires them to act on an issue in 2019-20. Students develop media-literacy connections to further inquiry and investigate topics that stimulate their curiosity. The final product will be a 3-minute video essay. 

Video Essay

Planning

Reading Comprehension Strategy One and Two

Building Background Knowledge and Using Sensory Images

Reading Development Level: Advancing

Research-based Instructional Strategies (from Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock, 2001)

Cues and Questions

Cues involve “hints” about what the students are about to experience. Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual. Marzano suggest that using Explicit Cues is key.

  • Preview of what about to learn; 
  • Activates prior knowledge;
  • Should be straightforward.

Inferential Questioning - Helps students fill in gaps from a lesson, activity, reading.

Analytic Questioning - Often require students to use prior knowledge in addition to new knowledge to analyze, critique information.

Similarities and Differences

Visual tools are used  to compare and contrast two or three people, places, events, concepts, or processes.  Venn diagrams can be used for specific, general, abstract, or concrete comparisons.  

Summarizing

  • Offers a concise, general version of the original information.
  • Demonstrates students understanding of the general point of a text.
  • Supports students’ comprehension of the material.

Note-taking

  • Provides a written record for review.
  • Requires active engagement for organization of material.
  • Supports comprehension by condensing and rephrasing material.

Lesson Length

2-3 Sessions

Purpose

Students will build sensory awareness enhancing their perception and personal connections to the theme of race, power, and privilege in their community.  Students will take notes, build background knowledge, and begin to determine which types of media messages are reliable sources of information. They will research what form of media campaign most inspires them to act on an issue in 2019-20. Students develop media-literacy connections to further inquiry and investigate topics that stimulate their curiosity. The final product will be a 3-minute video essay. 

Objectives

  1. Students use their senses to understand how racism affects individuals from a balanced group of resources.
  2. Recognize differences between the pieces of media and distinguish which resources are primary and secondary during a class discussion.
  3. Skim and scan LibGuides, libraries, and internet for sources that students personally connect to. 
  4. Make notes, organize thoughts and make comparisons using a Venn Diagram or graphic organizer, analyzing them for bias.
  5. Self-Assess their connections to media or text all of the sources presented, using a rubric.
  6. Create and record a video essay that analyzes two pieces of media and answers the question: “Which piece more effectively communicates an issue of race, power and privilege?”  Students will use the following questions as guides for inquiry: 
    • What is the message of the author in this text or media?
    • How does the author discuss themes of race, power and privilege?
    • What is missing from this message?
    • How might different people interpret this message differently?
    • Is this fact, opinion, or something else?

Resources, Materials, and Equipment

10 Great YouTube Channels for Teaching Video Essays

An example of a feature in a magazine that capitalizes on sensory imagery. 

Global Oneness Project

Multicultural Children’s or Young Adult Literature (fiction and informational books)

Students can choose from a collection of fiction and non-fiction books based on the social justice theme, to further their research and discover topics for inquiry. Educators should determine what books are appropriate based on the maturity level of their students. Some examples are below:

Black Boy

Good Enough

Trouble

The 57 Bus

Dear Martin

The Hate U Give

Barely Missing Everything

American Born Chinese

Speak No Evil by Uzodinma Iweala (LGBTQ coming out story that intersects with experience of racism/police brutality AND immigration). 

Non-Fiction

Being Jazz: My Life as a (Transgender) Teen

Children of War by Deborah Ellis

Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice by Phillip M. Hoose

Denied, Detained, Deported: Stories From The Dark Side of American Immigration by Ann Bausum

Girl Rising: Changing The World One Girl At A Time by Tanya Lee Stone

Websites (including pathfinders)

Common Sense Media Toolkit 

Our LibGuide (Link to be posted at a later date)

GoOpen Michigan https://goopenmichigan.org/

MichiganE Library http://mel.org/

Graphic organizers

Venn Diagram based on questions about finding bias in texts. 

Post-it App.

Equipment

iPads, Chromebooks, or cell phones with cameras, internet access, whiteboard, tablecloths or large pieces of fabric to create mini sound studios, post-It Notes and Post-It app, sharpies. Flipgrid Account or similar (Apple Clip App), headphones. 

Collaboration

Educators provide examples of how connecting with sensory images, emotions, aids in students’ understanding of their own cultural identity.  Expectations and code of conduct for respectful discussions learned in a previous lesson will be reviewed. Educators should be mindful not to expose their personal bias and use examples from media that have contrasting opinions and backgrounds. They explain and guide students through the process of filling out a graphic organizer, using an app, and creating a Venn Diagram. They will monitor group activity and correct technical issues. They will assist during the research process, guiding students to appropriate resources. Students should be knowledgeable about copyright and research practices before this lesson.

Assessment

Video essay rubric or create your own. 

https://www.wabisabilearning.com/blog/15-assessment-activities-fast-formative

Standards - Reading and/or Writing, Listening and Speaking

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.11-12.7

Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.

Michigan Center for Career and Technical Education

II. COMMUNICATIONS - Listen to and speak with diverse individuals to enhance communication skills.

IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS

C. Demonstrate Digital Citizenship

1. Identify legal and ethical issues related to the use of information and communication technologies (e.g., properly selecting and citing resources)

2. Discuss and demonstrate proper etiquette in online communications

3. Identify ways that individuals can protect their technology systems from unethical or unscrupulous users.

4. Create appropriate citations for resources when presenting research findings

5. Discuss and adhere to fair use policies and copyright guidelines

XI. JOURNALISM AND BROADCASTING PATHWAY

D. Demonstrate the ability to plan and deliver a broadcast production to exhibit readiness for completing key production functions.

Information Literacy (or AASL Shared Foundation)

AASL 1.3.4 Contribute to the exchange of ideas within the learning community. 

AASL 2.1.6 Use the writing process, media, and visual literacy, and technology skills to create products that express new understandings. 

AASL 4.1.8 Use creative and artistic formats to express personal learning.  

Implementation Process

Students use sensory images to reflect and connect by exploring topics that stimulate their curiosity. They begin to investigate what form of media campaign most inspires them to act on an issue in 2019-20. This lesson can be modified for various subject areas and was created to be an activity for a CTE Radio and TV Broadcasting course. A basic understanding of digital citizenship should be a prerequisite for this lesson. 

  1. The teacher will choose a variety of media to show to the class that is relevant to issues that directly affect their community based on the theme.  
  2. Students listen to music, national or local radio news broadcasts, or podcasts. 
  3. Students listen to passages from young adult novels that capitalize on sensory imagery, in audiobooks, on YouTube, or read by the teacher.
  4. Students watch a national, local or cable TV news broadcast, based on one of the following styles: advocacy journalism, feature, hard news, human interest, or raw video. 
  5. Students reflect on their own biases. 
  6. Students choose a topic related to race, power, and privilege to explore.
  7. Students create a video essay comparing and contrasting the bias of two pieces of media (literature, radio, television program, Youtube, etc.)

Motivation

Cues: Share examples of experiencing empathy, there are many videos to support this topic on our libguide. Have students define what senses the materials appeal to on Post-it notes during the presentations, with examples. They are encouraged to document thoughts, emotions and feelings as well. 

Student-Friendly Objectives

  1. Define empathy and the 5 senses. 
  2. Identify biases based on your personal connections to the topic.  
  3. Record information on Post-it Notes.
  4. Develop Venn Diagrams that compares and contrast the two pieces of media.
  5. Create and record a video essay that analyzes two pieces of media.

Vocabulary

Quizlet on vocab that relates to the unit on digital citizenship, race, including sensory terms, primary and secondary sources, guidelines for discussion procedures while discussing sensitive topics.

  • Bias
  • Collaboration
  • Digital Citizenship
  • Discrimination
  • Injustice
  • Invisibility
  • Mistreatment
  • Marginalization
  • Prejudice
  • Veracity

 

Presentation

Students listen and/or view primary and secondary media-literacy resources chosen by teacher and librarian that show bias and are relevant to the theme. There are many examples on our LibGuide. 

Questions posed: 

    • What is the message of the author in this text or media?
    • How does the author discuss themes of race, power and privilege?
    • What is missing from this message?
    • How might different people interpret this message differently?

Students use Post-It notes to document and organize thoughts during the presentation. Librarian models how to use Post-It App. Students are dismissed into groups of 2-3 to share their “notes”. Groups will photograph their Post-its and organize into categories, being sure to emphasize sensory words. Teacher and Librarian disperse to monitor discussions, clarify uncertainties, and troubleshoot technical difficulties. After the activity, students will share their reflections via Google Classroom, Apple Classroom, SeeSaw, etc. using Post-it app. Librarian will post group reflections on the smartboard. 

Student Participation Procedures

  1. Students document their thoughts, highlighting what senses and emotions were evoked while they viewed various media on the theme.
  2. Students form small groups to share, compare and organize their reactions. 

Student Practice Procedures

  1. Students conduct research and organize their thoughts on the Venn Diagram Graphic Organizer. 
  2. Students outline their content for their 3-minute video essay on the back of the Venn Diagram Graphic Organizer.
  3. Students rehearse their video essay and create it.

Guided Practice

Monitor students during research and small group discussion, reinforcing guidelines for discussion procedures on sensitive topics. Teachers encourage students to be creative in their video essay, using various styles. 

Closure & Reflection

Homework: students comment on 2 other video essays. Students are reminded of respectful discussion practices and comments will be limited in a way that allows for all students to get feedback. Students may need to be assigned specific video essays to comment on. 

Extensions

Share more examples of digital storytelling. Students can choose to post their videos to their social media and share with parents. Provide more opportunities for students to use video, in various ways, examples include: PSA’s, Instructional based, Music Videos, Interviews, News Broadcasts or Movie Trailers. Extend study on the topic of race, power, and privilege in their community. This short exercise will lead to more extensive project in which students create an 8 -10-minute piece of investigative journalism on an issue impacting their school community that reaches a diverse audience of 100 peers, exploring at least 3 unique perspectives to be posted on the School’s YouTube page. 

Buckingham, D. (2015). Defining digital literacy-What do young people need to know about digital media?. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy10 (Jubileumsnummer), 21-35.

Dezuanni, M. (2015). The building blocks of digital media literacy: socio-material participation and the production of media knowledge. Journal of Curriculum Studies47(3), 416-439.

Eberl, J. M., Boomgaarden, H. G., & Wagner, M. (2017). One bias fits all? Three types of media bias and their effects on party preferences. Communication Research44(8), 1125-1148.

Moreillon, Judi. Coteaching Reading Comprehension Strategies in Secondary School Libraries: Maximizing Your Impact. Chicago: ALA Editions, 2012.

Toledo, S., & Dubas, J. M. (2015). Encouraging higher-order thinking in general chemistry by scaffolding student learning using Marzano’s taxonomy. Journal of Chemical Education93(1), 64-69.

Yarbro, J., McKnight, K., Elliott, S., Kurz, A., & Wardlow, L. (2016). Digital instructional strategies and their role in classroom learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education48(4), 274-289.

Objectives

  1. Define empathy and the 5 senses. 
  2. Identify biases based on your personal connections to the topic.  
  3. Record information on Post-it Notes.
  4. Develop Venn Diagrams that compares and contrast the two pieces of media.
  5. Create and record a video essay that analyzes two pieces of media.

Vocabulary

Quizlet on vocab that relates to the unit on digital citizenship, race, including sensory terms, primary and secondary sources, guidelines for discussion procedures while discussing sensitive topics.

  • Bias
  • Collaboration
  • Digital Citizenship
  • Discrimination
  • Injustice
  • Invisibility
  • Mistreatment
  • Marginalization
  • Prejudice
  • Veracity

Presentation

Listen and/or view primary and secondary media-literacy resources chosen by teacher and librarian that show bias and are relevant to the theme.

Questions posed: 

    • What is the message of the author in this text or media?
    • How does the author discuss themes of race, power and privilege?
    • What is missing from this message?
    • How might different people interpret this message differently?

Use Post-It notes to document and organize thoughts during the presentation. Move to your group and share your “notes”. Groups will photograph their Post-its and organize into categories, being sure to emphasize sensory words. 

After the activity, students will share their reflections via Google Classroom, Apple Classroom, SeeSaw, etc. using Post-it app. Librarian will post group reflections on the smartboard. 

Student Participation Procedures

  1. Document your thoughts, highlighting what senses and emotions were evoked while they viewed various media on the theme.
  2. Small groups share, compare and organize their reactions. 

Student Practice Procedures

  1. Conduct research and organize their thoughts on the Venn Diagram Graphic Organizer. 
  2. Outline their content for their 3-minute video essay on the back of the Venn Diagram Graphic Organizer.
  3. Rehearse their video essay and create it.

Homework: Comment on 2 other video essays.