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09b. The Structure of the Federal Courts
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Even though the Founders surely intended that Congress hold a great deal of power over the judicial branch, in reality the basic organization of federal courts has remained basically the same throughout U.S. history. Congress has created new courts and reorganized others, and the system has grown increasingly complex. The courts have a great deal of independence, however, and they have established the judicial branch as a strong coequal to Congress and the president.

Subject:
U.S. History
Political Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
American Government
Date Added:
02/15/2018
10. E Pluribus Unum
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The Declaration of Independence was a product of the Second Continental Congress. Two earlier intercolonial conferences had occurred, each building important keystones of colonial unity. The Stamp Act Congress and the First Continental Congress brought the delegates from differing colonies to agreement on a message to send to the king. Each successive Congress brought greater participation. Each time the representatives met, they were more accustomed to compromise. As times grew more desperate, the people at home became more and more willing to trust their national leaders.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
02/15/2018
10. Japan: An Island Nation
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Japan's location just off the fringe of continental Asia made it an ideal place for its unique culture to develop. The islands are situated close enough to China and Korea to benefit from the cultural and technological innovations of those great civilizations, but far enough removed across perilous seas to resist significant political and military domination from the two powers.

Subject:
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
02/15/2018
10a. Japanese Religion and Spirituality
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Since ancient times, Japanese philosophers have pondered basic, unanswerable questions about their natural environment. The early Japanese believed that the world around them was inhabited by gods and spirits, from streaks of mist obscuring jagged mountain peaks to water cascading over secluded waterfalls. Almost every aspect of Japan's stunning natural beauty evoked a sense of awe and wonder among its people.

Subject:
Religious Studies
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
02/15/2018
10a. Stamp Act Congress
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"No taxation without representation!" was the cry. The colonists were not merely griping about the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act. They intended to place actions behind their words. One thing was clear — no colony acting alone could effectively convey a message to the king and Parliament. The appeals to Parliament by the individual legislatures had been ignored. It was James Otis who suggested an intercolonial conference to agree on a united course of action. With that, the Stamp Act Congress convened in New York in October 1765.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
02/15/2018
10b. Sons and Daughters of Liberty
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They were the ones who were not afraid. They knew instinctively that talk and politics alone would not bring an end to British tyranny. They were willing to resort to extralegal means if necessary to end this series of injustices. They were American patriots — northern and southern, young and old, male and female. They were the Sons and Daughters of Liberty.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
02/15/2018
10c. Committees of Correspondence
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Volumes and volumes of written work was emerging in the American colonies on the subject of British policies. Apart from major documents and publications, much writing had been produced as letters, pamphlets, and newspaper editorials. The arguments set forth in this way were at times very convincing. American patriots of the 1770s did not have modern means of communication at their disposal. To spread the power of the written word from town to town and colony to colony, Committees of Correspondence were established.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
02/15/2018
10c. Feudal Japan: The Age of the Warrior
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Being a warrior in feudal Japan was more than just a job. It was a way of life. The collapse of aristocratic rule ushered in a new age of chaos — appropriately called the Warring States period (c.1400-1600) — in which military might dictated who governed and who followed.

Subject:
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
02/15/2018
10d. First Continental Congress
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In the summer that followed Parliament's attempt to punish Boston, sentiment for the patriot cause increased dramatically. The printing presses at the Committees of Correspondence were churning out volumes.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
02/15/2018
10e. Life During the Edo Period
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For the first time in centuries, Japan was relatively peaceful. The strict political and social policies of Ieyasu and subsequent shoguns ushered in a golden age of economic and cultural prosperity.

Subject:
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
02/15/2018
10e. Second Continental Congress
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Times had taken a sharp turn for the worse. Lexington and Concord had changed everything. When the Redcoats fired into the Boston crowd in 1775, the benefit of the doubt was granted. Now the professional imperial army was attempting to arrest patriot leaders, and minutemen had been killed in their defense. In May 1775, with Redcoats once again storming Boston, the Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
02/15/2018
10f. Thomas Paine's Common Sense
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Americans could not break their ties with Britain easily. Despite all the recent hardships, the majority of colonists since birth were reared to believe that England was to be loved and its monarch revered. Yet there were the terrible injustices the colonists could not forget. Americans were divided against themselves. Arguments for independence were growing. Thomas Paine would provide the extra push.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
02/15/2018
10g. The Declaration of Independence
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The moment had finally come. Far too much bad blood existed between the colonial leaders and the crown to consider a return to the past. More and more colonists felt deprived by the British not only of their money and their civil liberties, but their lives as well. Bloodshed had begun over a year ago and there seemed little chance of a ceasefire. The radical wing of the Continental Congress was gaining strength with each passing day. It was time for a formal break with mother England. It was time to declare independence.

Subject:
Language Education (ESL)
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
02/15/2018
11. Central and South American Empires
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In the 1500s, when Spanish conquistadors appeared, two vast empires, those of the Aztecs and the Incas, dominated Central and South America. Both possessed divine kings, both were fractured by internal dissent, and both quickly succumbed to the Spanish onslaught. The physical remains of all these cultures lay dormant for centuries, until science and curiosity demanded their exploration.

Subject:
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
02/15/2018
11. The American Revolution
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How could the Americans ever hope defeat the mighty British Empire in a military conflict? Americans faced seemingly impossible obstacles. When the guns fired at Lexington and Concord in 1775, there was not yet even a Continental Army. Those battles were fought by local militias. Few Americans had any military experience, and there was no method of training, supplying, or paying an army.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
02/15/2018
11a. American and British Strengths and Weaknesses
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The British seemed unbeatable. During the previous 100 years, the British had enjoyed triumph after triumph over nations as powerful as France and Spain. At first glance, the odds were clearly against the Americans. A closer look provides insight into how the underdogs emerged victorious.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
02/15/2018
11a. Blood of Kings: The World of the Maya
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The Maya were a collection of people clustered in city-states. What united them was an idea. For the Maya the world of ordinary living and the Otherworld populated by gods, ancestors, and monstrous things, were equally real. There existed three regions, intricately bound together: the heavens, the earth, and the waters of the Underworld.

Subject:
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
02/15/2018
11b. Deciphering Maya Glyphs
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In the past 25 years archaeologists have learned to read what the Mayas wrote. Today we know the names of kings and queens, how they lived, and when they died, transforming our view of Maya culture.

Subject:
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
02/15/2018