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  • Atmospheric Science
6.3 Weather, Climate & Water Cycling
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This unit on weather, climate, and water cycling is broken into four separate lesson sets. In the first two lesson sets, students explain small-scale storms. In the third and fourth lesson sets, students explain mesoscale weather systems and climate-level patterns of precipitation. Each of these two parts of the unit is grounded in a different anchoring phenomenon.

The unit starts out with anchoring students in the exploration of a series of videos of hailstorms from different locations across the country at different times of the year. The videos show that pieces of ice of different sizes (some very large) are falling out of the sky, sometimes accompanied by rain and wind gusts, all on days when the temperature of the air outside remained above freezing for the entire day. These cases spark questions and ideas for investigations, such as investigating how ice can be falling from the sky on a warm day, how clouds form, why some clouds produce storms with large amounts of precipitation and others don’t, and how all that water gets into the air in the first place.

The second half of the unit is anchored in the exploration of a weather report of a winter storm that affected large portions of the midwestern United States. The maps, transcripts, and video that students analyze show them that the storm was forecasted to produce large amounts of snow and ice accumulation in large portions of the northeastern part of the country within the next day. This case sparks questions and ideas for investigations around trying to figure out what could be causing such a large-scale storm and why it would end up affecting a different part of the country a day later.

Subject:
Environmental Science
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Assessment
Lesson Plan
Student Guide
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Unit of Study
Author:
Assessment Specialist Colleen O’Brien
Boston College Emily Harris
BSCS Science Learning Audrey Mohan
BSCS Science Learning Dawn Novak
BSCS Science Learning Katie Van Horne
BSCS Science Learning Lindsey Mohan
BSCS Science Learning Tracey Ramirez
Columbia University Elisabeth Cohen
Indian Woods Middle School Ann Rivet
Indian Woods Middle School Whitney Smith
Lombard Middle School Vanessa Hannana
Michael Novak
Northwestern University Renee Affolter
Williston Central School Heather Galbreath
Date Added:
08/04/2020
Advanced Igneous Petrology, Fall 2005
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Advanced Igneous Petrology covers the history of and recent developments in the study of igneous rocks. Students review the chemistry and structure of igneous rock-forming minerals and proceed to study how these minerals occur and interact in igneous rocks. The course focuses on igneous processes and how we have learned about them through studying a number of significant sites worldwide.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Grove, Timothy L.
Date Added:
01/01/2005
Advanced Seminar in Geology and Geochemistry: Organic Geochemistry, Fall 2005
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Rating

12.491 is a seminar focusing on problems of current interest in geology and geochemistry. For Fall 2005, the topic is organic geochemistry. Lectures and readings cover recent research in the development and properties of organic matter.

Subject:
Anatomy/Physiology
Atmospheric Science
Chemistry
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Summons, Roger
Date Added:
01/01/2005
Applications of Continuum Mechanics to Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Spring 2006
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Practical applications of the continuum concept for deformation of solids and fluids, emphasizing force balance. Stress tensor, infinitesimal and finite strain, and rotation tensors developed. Constitutive relations applicable to geological materials, including elastic, viscous, brittle, and plastic deformation. Solutions to classical problems in geodynamics.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Hager, Bradford H.
Date Added:
01/01/2006
An Astro-Ventrous Water Cycle!
Only Sharing Permitted
CC BY-NC-ND
Rating

In this lesson students create a laboratory simulation of the water cycle. Indicating the change in states of matter and the flow of energy. Students also compare and contrast the cycle of matter with the flow of energy. This lesson was created as part of the 2016 NASA STEM Standards of Practice Project, a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Author:
Alabama Learning Exchange
Date Added:
08/06/2020
Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics, Fall 2008
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"This undergraduate class is designed to introduce students to the physics that govern the circulation of the ocean and atmosphere. The focus of the course is on the processes that control the climate of the planet.AcknowledgmentsProf. Ferrari wishes to acknowledge that this course was originally designed and taught by Prof. John Marshall."

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Ferrari, Raffaele
Date Added:
01/01/2008
Atmospheric Radiation, Fall 2008
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Introduction to the physics of atmospheric radiation and remote sensing including use of computer codes. Radiative transfer equation including emission and scattering, spectroscopy, Mie theory, and numerical solutions. Solution of inverse problems in remote sensing of atmospheric temperature and composition.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Physics
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
McClatchey, Robert
Seager, Sara
Date Added:
01/01/2008
Atmospheric and Ocean Circulations, Spring 2004
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Rating

Survey of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena including the discussion of observations and theoretical interpretations. Topics covered include: monsoons; El Nino; planetary waves; atmospheric synoptic eddies and fronts; gulf stream rings; hurricanes; surface and internal gravity waves; and tides. In this course, we will look at many important aspects of the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean, from length scales of meters to thousands of km and time scales ranging from seconds to years. We will assume familiarity with concepts covered in course 12.003 (Physics of the Fluid Earth). In the early stages of the present course, we will make somewhat greater use of math than did 12.003, but the math we will use is no more than that encountered in elementary electromagnetic field theory, for example. The focus of the course is on the physics of the phenomena which we will discuss.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Plumb, R. Alan
Date Added:
01/01/2004
Atmospheric and Oceanic Modeling, Spring 2004
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The numerical methods, formulation and parameterizations used in models of the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean will be described in detail. Widely used numerical methods will be the focus but we will also review emerging concepts and new methods. The numerics underlying a hierarchy of models will be discussed, ranging from simple GFD models to the high-end GCMs. In the context of ocean GCMs, we will describe parameterization of geostrophic eddies, mixing and the surface and bottom boundary layers. In the atmosphere, we will review parameterizations of convection and large scale condensation, the planetary boundary layer and radiative transfer.

Subject:
Education
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Adcroft, Alistair
Adcroft, Alistair J
Emanuel, Kerry A., 1955-
Marshall, John
Date Added:
01/01/2004
Basics of Impact Cratering & Geological, Geophysical, Geochemical, Environmental Studies of Some Impact Craters of the Earth, January (IAP) 2008
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This course introduces impact craters of the Earth. There are now 170 identified impact craters on the Earth, and this number is growing, ever since the well known discovery of Meteor Crater in 1920s. Currently, multi/inter disciplinary research studies of impact structures are getting conducted in fields like mineralogy, petrology, environmental geology and marine biology. This course is offered during the Independent Activities Period (IAP), which is a special 4-week term at MIT that runs from the first week of January until the end of the month.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Pillalamarri, Ila
Date Added:
01/01/2008
Beijing Urban Design Studio, Summer 2008
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In 2008, the Beijing Urban Design Studio will focus on the issue of Beijing's urban transformation under the theme of de-industrialization, by preparing an urban design and development plan for the Shougang (Capital Steel Factory) site. This studio will address whether portions of the old massive factory infrastructure can be preserved as a national industrial heritage site embedded into future new development; how to balance the cultural and recreational value of the site with environmental challenges; as well as how to use the site for urban development. A special focus of the studio will be to consider development approaches that minimize energy utilization. To research these questions, students will be asked to interact with clients from the factory, local residents, city officials and experts on transportation, environment, energy and real estate. They will assess strategic options for the steel factory and propose comprehensive plans for the design and development of the brownfield site.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Physics
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Frenchman, Dennis
Wampler, Jan
Date Added:
01/01/2008
Chemical Investigations of Boston Harbor, January (IAP) 2006
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Rating

Laboratory or field work in atmospheric science and oceanography. To be arranged with department faculty. Consult with department Education Office. This is an undergraduate introductory laboratory subject in ocean chemistry and measurement. There are three main elements to the course: oceanic chemical sampling and analysis, instrumentation development for the ocean environment, and the larger field of ocean science. This course is offered as part of the MIT/WHOI Joint Program in Oceanography/Applied Ocean Science and Engineering.

Subject:
Environmental Science
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Kujawinski, Elizabeth
Date Added:
01/01/2006
Crosby Lectures in Geology: History of Africa, Fall 2005
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A series of presentations on an advanced topic in the field of geology by the visiting William Otis Crosby lecturer. The Crosby lectureship is awarded to a distinguished international scientist each year to introduce new scientific perspectives to the MIT community. Subject content and structure vary from year to year.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Burke, Kevin
Date Added:
01/01/2005
Dynamics of Complex Systems: Biological and Environmental Coevolution Preceding the Cambrian Explosion, Spring 2005
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Rating

An introduction to theoretical studies of systems of many interacting components, the individual dynamics of which may be simple, but the collective dynamics of which are often nonlinear and analytically intractable. Topics vary from year to year. Format includes both pedagogical lectures and round-table reviews of current literature. Subjects of interest include: problems in natural science (e.g., geology, ecology, and biology) where quantitative theory is still in development; problems in physics, such as turbulence, that demonstrate powerful concepts such as scaling and universality; and modern computational methods for the simulation and study of such problems. Discussions in context of contemporary experimental or observational data.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Rothman, Daniel
Date Added:
01/01/2005
Dynamics of Complex Systems: Complexity in Ecology, Spring 2000
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CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

An introduction to theoretical studies of systems of many interacting components, the individual dynamics of which may be simple, but the collective dynamics of which are often nonlinear and analytically intractable. Topics vary from year to year. Format includes both pedagogical lectures and round-table reviews of current literature. Subjects of interest include: problems in natural science (e.g., geology, ecology, and biology) where quantitative theory is still in development; problems in physics, such as turbulence, that demonstrate powerful concepts such as scaling and universality; and modern computational methods for the simulation and study of such problems. Discussions in context of contemporary experimental or observational data.

Subject:
Ecology
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Rothman, Daniel
Date Added:
01/01/2000
Dynamics of Complex Systems: Ecological Theory, Spring 2001
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

An introduction to theoretical studies of systems of many interacting components, the individual dynamics of which may be simple, but the collective dynamics of which are often nonlinear and analytically intractable. Topics vary from year to year. Format includes both pedagogical lectures and round-table reviews of current literature. Subjects of interest include: problems in natural science (e.g., geology, ecology, and biology) where quantitative theory is still in development; problems in physics, such as turbulence, that demonstrate powerful concepts such as scaling and universality; and modern computational methods for the simulation and study of such problems. Discussions in context of contemporary experimental or observational data.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Rothman, Daniel
Date Added:
01/01/2001
Dynamics of the Atmosphere, Spring 2008
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This course begins with a study of the role of dynamics in the general physics of the atmosphere, the consideration of the differences between modeling and approximation, and the observed large-scale phenomenology of the atmosphere. Only then are the basic equations derived in rigorous manner. The equations are then applied to important problems and methodologies in meteorology and climate, with discussions of the history of the topics where appropriate. Problems include the Hadley circulation and its role in the general circulation, atmospheric waves including gravity and Rossby waves and their interaction with the mean flow, with specific applications to the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation, tides, the super-rotation of Venus' atmosphere, the generation of atmospheric turbulence, and stationary waves among other problems. The quasi-geostrophic approximation is derived, and the resulting equations are used to examine the hydrodynamic stability of the circulation with applications ranging from convective adjustment to climate.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Lindzen, Richard
Date Added:
01/01/2008
Elementary GLOBE: Cloud Fun (Spanish)
Read the Fine Print
Rating

A learning activity for the "Do You Know That Clouds Have Names?" book in the Elementary GLOBE series. Each student will be given the opportunity to create their own cumulus cloud out of white paper and mount it on blue paper. Students will also complete the Cloud Fun Student Activity Sheet that includes a description of the cloud and what the weather was like on the day the cloud was observed. The purpose of the activity is to help students identify cumulus clouds and observe the weather conditions on days that they see cumulus clouds. Students will learn about a cumulus cloud's shape and appearance, how to verbally describe cumulus clouds, and what the weather is generally like when these clouds appear in the sky.

Subject:
Environmental Science
Astronomy
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
The GLOBE Program
Provider Set:
Globe Program
Date Added:
12/01/2008
Environmental Earth Science, Fall 2005
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CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

The geologic record demonstrates that our environment has changed over a variety of time scales from seconds to billions of years. Subject explores the many ways in which geologic processes control and modify the Earth's environment. Topics include: chemical and physical interactions between the solid Earth, its oceans and atmosphere; the effect of catastrophic events such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes on the environment; geologic hazards; and our role in modifying the environment through earth resource development. This subject serves as an introduction to subject 12.120, which addresses field applications of these principles in the American Southwest. (Please note: 12.120 is not offered every year.)

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Bowring, Samuel
Date Added:
01/01/2005
Essentials of Geophysics, Fall 2004
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This course is designed to be a survey of the various subdisciplines of geophysics (geodesy, gravity, geomagnetism, seismology, and geodynamics) and how they might relate to or be relevant for other planets. No prior background in Earth sciences is assumed, but students should be comfortable with vector calculus, classical mechanics, and potential field theory.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Geology
Physics
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Hilst, Robert Van Der
Date Added:
01/01/2004
Fog Chamber
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In this weather-related activity, learners make a portable cloud in a bottle. Learners discover that clouds form when invisible water vapor in the air is cooled enough to form tiny droplets of liquid water. You an accomplish the same cooling effect by rapidly expanding air in a jar using a wide-mouth jar, rubber glove, matches, and tap water. This activity can be conducted as a demonstration or by learners with adult supervision.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Exploratorium
Provider Set:
Science Snacks
Date Added:
09/04/2019
General Circulation of the Earth's Atmosphere, Fall 2005
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CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

Diagnostic studies and discussion of their implications for the theory of the structure and general circulation of the Earth's atmosphere. Includes some discussion of the validation and use of general circulation models as atmospheric analogs.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Stone, Peter
Date Added:
01/02/2009
Global Warming Science, Spring 2012
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CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

This course provides students with a scientific foundation of anthropogenic climate change and an introduction to climate models. It focuses on fundamental physical processes that shape climate (e.g. solar variability, orbital mechanics, greenhouse gases, atmospheric and oceanic circulation, and volcanic and soil aerosols) and on evidence for past and present climate change. During the course they discuss material consequences of climate change, including sea level change, variations in precipitation, vegetation, storminess, and the incidence of disease. This course also examines the science behind mitigation and adaptation proposals.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Daniel Cziczo
David McGee
Kerry Emanuel
Sara Seager
Date Added:
01/01/2012
Glue Stick Sunset
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In this activity, learners explore why the sky is blue. Learners model the scattering of light by the atmosphere, which creates the blue sky and red sunset, using a flashlight and clear glue sticks. This resource guide includes an explanation of how light scatters and how this scattering can cause the polarization of light.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Exploratorium
Provider Set:
Science Snacks
Date Added:
09/04/2019
Hands-On Astronomy: Observing Stars and Planets, Spring 2002
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Background for and techniques of visual observation, electronic imaging, and spectroscopy of the Moon, planets, satellites, stars, and brighter deep-space objects. Weekly outdoor observing sessions using 8-inch diameter telescopes when weather permits. Indoor sessions introduce needed skills. Introduction to contemporary observational astronomy including astronomical computing, image and data processing, and how astronomers work. Student must maintain a careful and complete written log which is graded. In this seminar we explore the background and techniques of visual observation and imaging of the Moon, planets, and brighter deep-space objects using 8-inch telescopes. (Some sample images appear in our "photo album".) Telescope work begins with visual observing, then we advance to CCD (charge-coupled device) cameras. Each class observing session meets one evening a week. Whenever weather conditions permit us to observe outdoors we do so! In cloudy weather we'll try some astronomical computing and image processing indoors instead. Either way, virtually all the work for the seminar is done during the evening sessions, so students must attend section every week in order to pass. Past experience has been that if you're really enthusiastic about hands-on out-under-the-sky astronomy, enough to be willing to deal with dressing warmly, tinkering with equipment, and committing one evening a week, 12.409 is great fun! One student wrote, "Unlike most seminars, you will earn your units and, unlike most other MIT courses, you will look forward to doing it!" But we'll be direct: 12.409 is not for everyone, and in past years many whose interest was merely casual found themselves unwilling to devote one entire evening every week to the class. If your interest is only casual then consider whether a more typical astronomy survey subject might be a better choice, since it'll have more outside preparation time that you can rearrange at your discretion and less in-class time that you can't.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Unknown
Date Added:
01/01/2002
Inference from Data and Models, Spring 2005
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CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

Fundamental methods used for exploring the information content of observations related to kinematical and dynamical models. Basic statistics and linear algebra for inverse methods including singular value decompositions, control theory, sequential estimation (Kalman filters and smoothing algorithms), adjoint/Pontryagin principle methods, model testing, etc. Second part focuses on stationary processes, including Fourier methods, z-transforms, sampling theorems, spectra including multi-taper methods, coherences, filtering, etc. Directed at the quantitative combinations of models, with realistic, i.e. sparse and noisy observations.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Wunsch, Carl
Date Added:
01/01/2005
Introduction to Observational Physical Oceanography, Fall 2004
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CC BY-NC-SA
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An introduction to the results and techniques of observations of the ocean in the context of its physical properties and dynamical constraints. Emphasis on large-scale steady circulation and the time-dependent processes that contribute to it. Includes the physical setting of the ocean, atmospheric forcing, application of conservation laws, description of wind-driven and thermohaline circulation, eddy processes, and interpretive techniques.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Physics
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Ferrari, Raffaele
Date Added:
01/01/2004
I've Gotta Get Some Air
Read the Fine Print
Educational Use
Rating

Students identify types and sources of indoor air pollutants in their school and home environments. They evaluate actions that can be taken to reduce and prevent poor indoor air quality. In an associated literacy activity, students develop a persuasive peer-to-peer case against smoking with the goal to understand how language usage can influence perception, attitudes and behavior.

Subject:
Engineering
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lesson Plan
Provider:
TeachEngineering
Provider Set:
TeachEngineering
Author:
Amy Kolenbrander
Denise Carlson
Janet Yowell
Malinda Schaefer Zarske
Natalie Mach
Date Added:
09/18/2014
Large-scale Flow Dynamics Lab, Fall 2009
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
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This course is a laboratory accompaniment to 12.803, Quasi-balanced Circulations in Oceans and Atmospheres. The subject includes analysis of observations of oceanic and atmospheric quasi-balanced flows, computational models, and rotating tank experiments. Student projects illustrate the basic principles of potential vorticity conservation and inversion, Rossby wave propagation, baroclinic instability, and the behavior of isolated vortices.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Flierl, Glenn
Illari, Lodovica
Date Added:
01/01/2009
A Little Atmosphere
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The earth’s atmosphere may seem thick when compared to something like your height—but it’s surprisingly thin when compared to the earth’s radius. Here, you can find out exactly how thin, using strips of plastic to model the correctly scaled thickness of the atmosphere on a globe.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Exploratorium
Provider Set:
Science Snacks
Date Added:
09/04/2019
Mechanical Properties of Rocks, Fall 2005
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CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

A survey of the mechanical behavior of rocks in natural geologic situations. Topics: brief survey of field evidence of rock deformation, physics of plastic deformation in minerals, brittle fracture and sliding, and pressure-solution processes. Results of field petrologic and structural studies compared to data from experimental structural geology.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Evans, J
Date Added:
01/01/2005
Medical Geology/Geochemistry: An Exposure, January (IAP) 2006
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

Laboratory or field work in earth, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. To be arranged with department faculty. Consult with department Education Office. This course introduces students to the basic concepts of Medical Geology/Geochemistry. Medical Geology/Geochemistry is the study of the interaction between abundances of elements and isotopes and the health of humans and plants.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Chemistry
Geology
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Pillalamarri, Ila
Date Added:
01/01/2006
Petrology, Fall 2005
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

Surveys the distribution, chemical composition, and mineral associations in rocks of the earth's crust and upper mantle, and establishes its relation to tectonic environment. Emphasis is on the use of chemistry and physics to interpret rock forming processes. Topics include: dynamics of crust and mantle melting as preserved in the chemical composition of igneous rocks and minerals, the long-term record of global climate change as preserved in the minerals of sedimentary rocks, and the time-temperature-depth record preserved in minerals of metamorphosed crustal rocks.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Grove, Timothy L.
Date Added:
01/01/2005
Phase Transitions in the Earth's Interior, Spring 2005
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

This course discusses phase transitions in Earth's interior. Phase transitions in Earth materials at high pressures and temperatures cause the seismic discontinuities and affect the convections in the Earth's interior. On the other hand, they enable us to constrain temperature and chemical compositions in the Earth's interior. However, among many known phase transitions in mineral physics, only a few have been investigated in seismology and geodynamics. This course reviews important papers about phase transitions in mantle and core materials.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Shim, Sang-heon
Date Added:
01/02/2009
Pie-Pan Convection
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

In this activity, students observe fluid motion and the formation of convection cells as a solution of soap and water is heated. This procedure can be performed as a demonstration by the teacher, or older students can conduct the experiment themselves. A list of materials, instructions, and a description of the convective process are included.

Subject:
Astronomy
Atmospheric Science
Chemistry
Physics
Material Type:
Interactive
Lecture Notes
Simulation
Provider:
Exploratorium
Provider Set:
Science Snacks
Date Added:
03/10/2005
Prediction and Predictability in the Atmosphere and Oceans, Spring 2003
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

Forecasting is the ultimate form of model validation. But even if a perfect model is in hand, imperfect forecasts are likely. This course will cover the factors that limit our ability to produce good forecasts, will show how the quality of forecasts can be gauged a priori (predicting our ability to predict!), and will cover the state of the art in operational atmosphere and ocean forecasting systems.

Subject:
Education
Mathematics
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Hansen, James
Hansen, Jim
Date Added:
01/01/2003
Quantifying Uncertainty, Fall 2012
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CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

The ability to quantify the uncertainty in our models of nature is fundamental to many inference problems in Science and Engineering. In this course, we study advanced methods to represent, sample, update and propagate uncertainty. This is a "hands on" course: Methodology will be coupled with applications. The course will include lectures, invited talks, discussions, reviews and projects and will meet once a week to discuss a method and its applications.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Sai Ravela
Date Added:
01/01/2012
Quasi-Balanced Circulations in Oceans and Atmospheres, Fall 2009
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

" This course introduces the students to dynamics of large-scale circulations in oceans and atmospheres. Basic concepts include mass and momentum conservation, hydrostatic and geostrophic balance, and pressure and other vertical coordinates. It covers the topics of fundamental conservation and balance principles for large-scale flow, generation and dissipation of quasi-balanced eddies, as well as equilibrated quasi-balanced systems. Examples of oceanic and atmospheric quasi-balanced flows, computational models, and rotating tank experiments can be found in the accompaniment laboratory course 12.804, Large-scale Flow Dynamics Lab."

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Emanuel, Kerry
Date Added:
01/01/2009
Radon Research in Multidisciplines: A Review, January (IAP) 2007
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

Laboratory or field work in earth, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. To be arranged with department faculty. Consult with department Education Office. This course introduces fundamentals of radon physics, geology, radiation biology; provides hands on experience of measurement of radon in MIT environments, and discusses current radon research in the fields of geology, environment, building and construction, medicine and health physics.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Physics
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Pillalamarri, Ila
Date Added:
01/01/2007